At the end of the People’s Action Party’s first year in power in May 1960, they were widely popular and riding high. One year later, they were absolutely crushed in a crucial by-election, which party leader Lee Kuan Yew had declared to be a referendum on his government. In this episode, PJ Thum narrates the second year of the PAP’s time in office, including the Ong Eng Guan affair and the end of Lee’s secret conspiracy with the Malayan Communist Party, how Lee fell victim to a situation largely of his own making, and the desperate gamble he would embark on to restore his authority. Please send questions, comments, and feedback to email@example.com or visit thehistoryofsingapore.com. Support the show at patreon.com/pjthum.